Table 5. Chi Square Values for Internal Intensifiers Differences in High and Low Severe Situations. According to the table, the significance value 0. Accordingly, it was concluded that severity of offense significantly motivates the use of apology internal intensifiers in Persian. The third research question of the study was posed to check whether social distance affects the use of Internal Intensifiers strategies realized by male Persian speakers. To answer the question, the distribution of Internal Intensifiers in high social distance and low social distance situations was calculated. As it was mentioned earlier, the situations in the questionnaire of the study were designed to test the effect of social distance as an independent variable.
Accordingly, some situations situations A2, A4, A6, A7, A8, and A9 included low social distance status and other situations situations A1, A3, A5, A10, A11, and A 12 included high social distance status. Table 6.
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As it is displayed in Table 6, the most frequent Internal Intensifiers used by Persian male speakers of the study in low social distance situations were Intensifying Adverbial, registering 40 cases. In low social distance situations, Emotion was used as the second most frequent intensifier used by Persian male participants, recording 21 cases. The third least frequent intensifier used by participants of the study in low social distance situations was Double Intensifier, registering 2 cases. As for high social distance situations, the above table shows that the most frequent strategy preferred by Persian male participants of the study was Intensifying Adverbial, recording 62 cases.
As the second frequently used intensifier, the Persian male participants of the study used 19 Emotions to realize apologies in high social distance situations. And, a total of 5 Double Intensifiers were used as the least frequent intensifier by the participants of the study. Quantitatively speaking, the status of social distance in situations affects the frequency use of internal intensifiers used for apology strategies. In order to check whether the differences in the frequency use of impolite complaint strategies between high and low social distance situations was statistically significant, Chi-square statistical procedure was run.
Table 7. Accordingly, the results imply that social distance does not significantly affect the use of internal intensifiers realized by Persian male speakers. Moreover, the results implicated that severity of offense motivated the realization patterns of apology internal intensifications in general. The Persian culture stresses the assessment of context internal variables in the realization of speech acts and linguistically recommends more internal intensifications of apologies for more sever offenses. Another finding of the study revealed that social distance as a context-external variable does not prompt the use of internal intensifications differently in situations where there is social distance between interlocutors compared to situations where there is no social distance between interlocutors.
This could be justified from a cultural point of view.
It makes no difference in Persian whether interlocutors in an interaction know one another or not when an offense is committed and an apology is expected; apology speech acts are internally intensified to the same extent regardless of the fact whether interlocutors in an interaction know one another or not. Persian culture recommends the intensification of an apology internally to make it more appealing to the person who expects the apology.
However, the finding was contrary to previous literature. For example, Wijayanto et al. The controversy above could be explained from several perspectives. For example, the nature of situations described in the instrument to collect the data may have prompted different strategies for the realization of speech acts.
Moreover, differences found in this regard could be explained by the significant cultural norms that might have different linguistic realizations cross-culturally. The current study is an informative one for a number of readers, including Iranian EFL teachers, Iranian EFL learners, Persian learners, and material developers. Firstly, it contributes to EFL teaching and learning from a cross-cultural perspective. Drawing upon the results of the current study and comparing them with results from other studies, Iranian EFL teachers can familiarize Iranian EFL learners with the norms of apologizing and intensification of apology in Persian and highlight the differences between Persian and English in this regards.
Awareness of cross-cultural linguistic differences can lead to better cross-cultural communications among Iranian EFL learners and can result in fewer cross-cultural clashes linguistically. As for those who are learning Persian as a second or another language, the current study could be inspiring. It is helpful because not only it provides Persian learners with some of universal intensifiers that are used for the intensification of apologies in Persian, but also it reveals what and how culture-specific norms are used in Persian more frequently.
Drawing upon the results of the current study, Iranian ELT material developers can include more appropriate cultural points in the syllabuses of materials developed for Iranian EFL leaners. As with any research, the present study faced several limitations in relation to the sample and methodology implemented. One clear limitation was associated with the sample size. The study was limited by the small sample size which may have affected the results.
Future research focusing on a greater number of participants should be considered.
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Another limitation of the present study lies in the research instruments DCT. Although DCT could collect the data, the speech acts collected only reflect what the participants believed to perform and, therefore, they may represent different speech act strategies as compared with data taken from authentic conversations. Therefore, future study may opt for triangulation of the data, for example, collected through role-play.
Moreover, since the participants of the study were all selected from male native speakers of Persian, the study also paves the way for conducting the same research on female native speakers of Persian to see whether gender differentiates the choice of apology intensifications internally with regard to contextual variables. نام و نام خانوادگی همه گفتگوها بین آقایان اتفاق می افتد. زیاد فکر نکنید و سعی کنید طبیعی پاسخ دهید. شما منشی با سابقه یک شرکت هستید. یکی از کارمندان جدید لپ تاپ جدید خود را به شما داده تا برای چند لحظه از آن استفاده نمایید.
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فهرست نشریات همه نشریات علوم انسانی علوم پایه فنی و مهندسی نشریات دانشجوئی. Shahrokhi, Mohsen. The Impact of Contextual Variables on Internal Intensification of Apology Speech Acts in Persian: Social Distance and Severity of Offense in Focus. سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی دانشگاه اصفهان , 8 4 , doi: Mohsen Shahrokhi.
سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی دانشگاه اصفهان , 8, 4, , سامانه مدیریت نشریات علمی دانشگاه اصفهان , ; 8 4 : The Impact of Contextual Variables on Internal Intensification of Apology Speech Acts in Persian: Social Distance and Severity of Offense in Focus Applied Research on English Language مقاله 5 ، دوره 8، شماره 4 ، بهمن ، صفحه اصل مقاله چکیده The current paper primarily provides an account of how apology speech acts are internally intensified in Persian. Moreover, the study checks to what extent contextual variables, namely social distance and severity of offense, may motivate the internal intensification of apology speech acts.
To these ends, the study collected the required speech acts through a Discourse Completion Test DCT from among Persian male native speakers. The data was analyzed based on the coding scheme developed by Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper The results revealed that apology speech acts are intensified in Persian in most cases through universal strategies of internal intensification.
Moreover, the Persian speakers are sensitive to severity of the offense, as a context-internal variable, which motivates more internal intensifications of apologies. The findings, however, revealed that social distance as a context-external variable does not prompt the use of internal intensifications differently in situations where there is social distance between interlocutors compared to situations where there is no social distance between interlocutors. Taking on Responsibility 3. Explicit Self Blame: My Mistake.
Expression of Embarrassment: I feel awful about it. Ali, I am really sorry.
It took more than I thought. Alerter Internal Intensifiers Supportive Intensifier Head Act. Strategy Example 1. Expression Marked for Register: I do apologize … 4. Please: Please forgive me. Strategy Situation No Intns IA EMO DBI Total Intns A1 56 Value df Sig. Chi Square Chi Square 2. Afghari, A. A Sociopragmatic Study of Apology Speech Act Realization Patterns in Persian. Speech Communication, 49 , Bergman, M.
Perception and performance in native and nonnative apology. Blum-Kulka Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Blum-Kulka, S. Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Request and Apologies. New Jersey: Ablex. Request and Apologies: a cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns CCSARP. Applied Linguistics, 5 3 , Brown, P. Universals of language usage: Politeness phenomena. Goody Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cohen, A. Developing a model of socicultural competence: the case of apologies. Language Learning, 31 1 , David, M.
Acquiring Communicative Competence in the Reading Classroom. Literacy across Cultures, 3 1 , Edmondson, W. Spoken Discourse: A Model for Analysis. London: Longman.
Eslami, Z. Face-keeping strategies in reaction to complaints. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 14 1 , Fraser, B. On apologies. Coulmas Ed. Goffman, E. Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Golato, A. German Compliment Responses. Journal of Pragmatics, 34 5 , Holmes, J. Women, Men and Politeness. Teachers and Students Learning about Compliments. TESOL Quarterly, 21 3 , Kasper, G. Linguistic Politeness: Current research issues. Journal of Pragmatics, 14 2 , Kim, H. The semantic and pragmatic analysis of South Korean and Australian English apologetic speech acts.
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Journal of Pragmatics, 40, — Marquez-Reiter, R. Linguistic politeness in Britain and Uruguay: a contrastive study of request and apologies. Mishan, F. Materials Development for TESOL.
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Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Munandar, M. Cross-Cultural Communication , 8 5 : 67— Nureddeen, F. Cross cultural pragmatics: Apology strategies in Sudanese Arabic. Journal of Pragmatics, 40 2 , Olshtain, E. Apologies across Cultures. Blum-Kulka, J. Kasper Eds. Norwood: N. Apology: a speech act set. Judd Eds. MA: Newbury House.